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What type of battery and what is its autonomy

This article is written by the site www.veloelectriquefrance.fr

Editor : the August 18, 2016

Types of batteries for electric bikes

The battery is the most important component of the electric bicycle, it is characterized by its technology and its power.

They exist 3 types of batteries : Ni-MH, Li-Ion, Li-Po

Lead-acid battery

They are no longer used on electric bicycles from the bottom of the range. They are much more heavy between 5 and 6 kg compared to 1 to 2kg for the other types.

They have a shorter life between 250 and 350 cycles of load.

Less expensive, but also much heavier and more difficult to recycle than others. A

Battery nickel-metal hydride - Ni-MH

This battery is susceptible to the memory effect, unlike other technologies, Lead, Li-Ion or Li-Po. They recycle well, but can't stand the overload and require a charger that is suitable. They are sensitive to self-discharge. The Ni-MH batteries are capable of around 500 charge cycles.

  Lithium battery, Li-Ion

These are the ones that are the most frequent, it pésent average 1.5 kg but do not have a memory effect and have a superior performance to lead acid batteries or NI-MH batteries. They recycle well. The lithium Ion batteries can withstand from 600 to 1200 charge cycles for the best.

  Lithium - ion polymer battery Li-Po

They weigh in around 500g, they do not have memory effect and have a performance equivalent to the Li-ion batteries. They recycle well. The batteries in li-Po support from 600 to 1500 charge cycles.

A battery a chemical element that deteriorates in time. Follow the manufacturers recommendations to prolong the life

 

The batteries of the bikes electrical represent 30 to 50% of the price of the bike. The technology of the battery influences a lot the performance of the EAB, but also its price.

 

The autonomy of the batteries of electric bike

The battery gives the bike its autonomy and its power. The performance of the battery is expressed by the combination of the voltage expressed in Volt (V) and its capacity expressed in Ampere-hours (Ah).

 

Some figures on tests done with a mountain bike brand, with a motor crank, and a battery Li-Ion 400 Watt-hours.

Flat course : autonomy of more than 100 km up to 110 or even 120 kms. (less than 3.8 Watt-hour per km)

Course with a terrain of small hills : a range of about 85 to 100 kms. (3.8 to 4.5 Watt-hours per km)

Course quite hilly (for example, with climbs of 4 to 7 kms more than 5% : Range of 75 to 85 kms (4.5 to 5 Watt-hours per km)

Finally, we can simplify by saying that 100 watt-hours are used to navigate between 20 and 30 kms, depending on the context.

 

To calculate the power of a VAE in Watts, multiply the voltage of the battery expressed in volts by the current expressed in amperes. For example, a bike 24V 10 Ah is 240W. In the case where the bike has a power greater than 250W as, for example, 36V 8Ah = 288 W, it is electronically limited and the surplus power will fall back on a greater autonomy of the battery.